Communications II
Subject Code: ETM3076
Aim of Subject:
  • To further develop the fundamental knowledge of communications theories and their applications in digital communications.
  • To expose the students to information theory and coding techniques.
  • To further understand antenna theory and radio propagation.
Learning Outcome of Subject: At the completion of the subject, students should be able to:
  • apply the basic concepts in information theory to communication systems.
  • analyse signals using Fourier analysis and Fourier transform.
  • define the conditions for distortionless signal transmission.
  • discuss the mechanisms causing intersymbol interference and channel fading.
  • discuss different types of pulse modulation techniques implemented in communication systems.
  • design simple signal multiplexers.
  • differentiate ASK, FSK, PSK, DPSK, MSK, M-ary modulation for digital data transmission.
  • draw the transceiver structure for various modulation schemes.
  • design matched filter receiver for different pulse shapes.
  • analyse the performance of digital communication systems.
  • undertake, under supervision, laboratory experiments on channel effect and line coding
Programme Outcomes:
  • Ability to acquire and apply fundamental principles of science and engineering(10%)
  • Capability to communicate effectively(5%)
  • Acquisition of technical competence in specialised areas of engineering discipline(60%)
  • Ability to identify, formulate and model problems and find engineering solutions based on a systems approach(10%)
  • Ability to conduct investigation & research on engineering problems in a chosen fields of study(5%)
  • Understanding of the importance of sustainability and cost-effectiveness in design and development of engineering solutions(5%)
  • Ability to work independently as well as with others in a team(5%)
Assessment Scheme:
  • Lab Experiments - Work in group of 2, Lab report writing, Oral assessment at the end of lab??? (10%)
  • Tutorial / Assignment - Group assignment, Focus group discussion at tutorial, To enhance understanding of basic concepts in lecture (15%)
  • Test Quiz - Written exam(15%)
  • Final Exam - Written exam(60%)
Teaching and Learning Activities: 51 hours (42hr lectures, 3hr tutorials and 6hr laboratory experiments)
Credit Hours: 3
Pre-Requisite: ETM3046: Communications I
  • B.P Lathi, "Modern Digital and Analog Communication Systems", Oxford University Press., 1998 (Textbook)
  • Simon Haykin, “Communication Systems”, John Wiley & Sons., 2001 (Textbook)
  • M. Schwartz, "Information Transmission, Modulation and Noise", Mc-Graw Hill.,1990
  • Taub & Schilling, "Principles of Communication Systems", Mc-Graw Hill., 1987
  • Roger L. Freeman, “Telecommunication Transmission Handbook”, John Wiley & sons., 1998
  • R.E. Ziemar et al, “Principles of Communications”, John Wiley & Sons., 2008
  • J. Beasley & G.M. Miller, ”Modern Electronic Communication”, PH., 2007

Subject Contents

  • Frequency Spectrum

  • Review of Fourier analysis, Fourier transform of pulses; characteristics of distortionless signal transmission; signal distortion over bandlimited channel, non-linear channel, multipath propagation channel, fading channel and additive white gaussian noise channel
  • Pulse Modulations

  • Pulse amplitude modulation, Pulse width modulation, Pulse position modulation.
  • Digitization of Speech Signals

  • Sampling theorem, sample-and-hold, time-division multiplexing, Pulse code modulation (PCM), quantization noise, companding, Differential PCM, Delta modulation, overload noise, Adaptive delta modulation.
  • Baseband Data Transmission and Digital Modulation Techniques

  • Line coding, Intersymbol interference, Nyquist waveshaping, eye pattern, adaptive equalization. Transmission over bandpass channel. ASK, FSK, PSK, DPSK, M-ary modulation, Continuous phase FSK, MSK.
  • Performance of Digital Communication Systems

  • Statistical properties of noise and random signals. Gaussian and Laplacian distribution, Gaussian noise, error function, probability of error calculation, error rates in binary and M-ary transmission, Error analysis of PCM repeater systems. Narrowband noise, Rayleigh distribution and fading, Rician distribution, Matched filter Receiver.


1. Channel Effect (CBT)
2. Line Coding (CBT)