Analog and Digital Communications
Subject Code: ETM2046
Aim of Subject:
  • To develop the fundamental knowledge of communications theories and their applications in analog & digital communications.
Learning Outcome of Subject: At the completion of the subject, students should be able to:
  • Explain the principles of analog and digital communications and applications. (cognitive - understanding, level 2)
  • Explain the working principles of modulation schemes, coding and information theory. (cognitive - understanding, level 2)
  • Compute the bandwidth and transmission power by analysing time and frequency domain spectra of signal required under various modulation schemes (cognitive - applying, level 3)
  • Apply suitable modulation schemes and coding for various applications. (cognitive - applying, level 3)
  • Differentiate between analog and digital communication systems. (cognitive - analysing, level 4)
Programme Outcomes:
  • Ability to acquire and apply fundamental principles of science and engineering. (42%)
  • Capability to communicate effectively. (12%)
  • Acquisition of technical competence in specialised areas of engineering discipline. (14%)
  • Ability to identify, formulate and model problems and find engineering solutions based on a systems approach. (14%)
  • Ability to work effectively as an individual, and as a member/leader in a team. (18%)
Assessment Scheme:
  • Lab Experiments - Work in group of 2, Lab report writing(10% )
  • Tutorial / Assignment - Group assignment, To enhance understanding of basic concepts in lecture(15% )
  • Test, Quiz - Written exam(15%)
  • Final Exam - Written exam(60%)
Teaching and Learning Activities: 58 hours (42hr lectures, 10hr tutorials and 6hr laboratory experiments)
Credit Hours: 3
Pre-Requisite: EEM1026: Engineering Mathematics II
  • Taub & Schilling, "Principles of Communication Systems", McGraw-Hill, 1987.
  • Simon Haykin, "Communication Systems", Wiley, 4th edition, 2001.
  • P.H. Young, “Electronic Communication Techniques”, Prentice Hall, 4 Edition, 1998.

Subject Contents

  • Principles of Communications

  • An elementary account of the types of transmission. Brief historical development on communications. Block diagram of analog and digital communication systems. Types of communication channels and noise. The frequency spectrum.
  • Spectral Analysis

  • Signals and vectors, orthogonal functions, Fourier series, Fourier integral, signal spectrum, convolution, power and energy, correlation. Fourier analysis, Fourier transform of pulses.
  • Amplitude Modulation

  • Reasons for modulation. Types of modulation. Amplitude modulation systems: Comparison of AM systems, Methods of generating, and detecting Full-AM, DSB-SC and SSB signals. Vestigial sideband. Frequency mixing and multiplying, frequency division multiplexing, applications of AM systems.
  • Frequency Modulation

  • Frequency modulation systems: Instantaneous frequency, frequency deviation, modulation index, Bessel coefficients, significant sideband criteria, bandwidth of a sinusoidally modulated FM signal, power of an FM signal, narrowband FM, direct and indirect FM generation, various methods of FM demodulation, discriminator, phase-lock loop, limiter.
  • Pulse Modulations

  • Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM), Pulse width modulation (PWM), Pulse position modulation (PPM). Sampling theorem, sample-and-hold, time-division multiplexing, Pulse code modulation (PCM), quantization noise, companding, Differential PCM, Delta modulation, overload noise, Adaptive delta modulation.
  • Baseband Data Transmission and Digital Modulation Techniques

  • Line coding, Intersymbol interference, Nyquist waveshaping, eye pattern, adaptive equalization. Transmission over bandpass channel. ASK, FSK, PSK, DPSK, M-ary modulation.
  • Information Theory and Coding

  • Discrete message, concept and measurement of information, entropy, information rate, redundancy, Shannon's theorem. Shannon-Fano and Huffman coding algorithm, overview of linear block codes and error correction, Hamming code.


1. AM Modulation/Demodulation
2. Digital Modulation Techniques using MATLAB