
Analog and Digital
Communications
Subject Code: 
ETM2046 
Aim of Subject: 
 To develop the fundamental knowledge of
communications theories and their applications in analog & digital
communications.

Learning Outcome of Subject: 
At the completion of the subject, students should be
able to:
 Explain the principles of analog and digital communications and applications. (cognitive  understanding, level 2)
 Explain the working principles of modulation schemes, coding and information theory. (cognitive  understanding, level 2)
 Compute the bandwidth and transmission power by analysing time and frequency domain spectra of signal required under various modulation schemes (cognitive  applying, level 3)
 Apply suitable modulation schemes and coding for various applications. (cognitive  applying, level 3)
 Differentiate between analog and digital communication systems. (cognitive  analysing, level 4)

Programme Outcomes: 
 Ability to acquire and apply fundamental principles
of science and engineering. (42%)
 Capability to communicate effectively. (12%)
 Acquisition of technical competence in specialised
areas of engineering discipline. (14%)
 Ability to identify, formulate and model problems and
find engineering solutions based on a systems approach. (14%)
 Ability to work effectively as an individual, and as
a member/leader in a team. (18%)

Assessment Scheme: 
 Lab Experiments  Work in group of 2,
Lab report writing(10%
)
 Tutorial / Assignment  Group assignment, To enhance
understanding of basic concepts in lecture(15%
)
 Test, Quiz  Written exam(15%)
 Final Exam  Written exam(60%)

Teaching and Learning Activities: 
58 hours (42hr lectures, 10hr tutorials and 6hr
laboratory experiments) 
Credit Hours: 
3 
PreRequisite: 
EEM1026: Engineering Mathematics II 
References: 

Taub & Schilling, "Principles of Communication Systems",
McGrawHill, 1987.
 Simon Haykin, "Communication Systems", Wiley, 4th
edition, 2001.

P.H. Young, “Electronic Communication Techniques”, Prentice Hall, 4
Edition,
1998.

Subject Contents

Principles of Communications
An elementary account of the types of transmission. Brief historical
development on communications. Block diagram of analog and digital
communication systems. Types of communication channels and noise. The
frequency spectrum.
 Spectral Analysis
Signals and vectors, orthogonal functions, Fourier series, Fourier
integral, signal spectrum, convolution, power and energy, correlation.
Fourier analysis, Fourier transform of pulses.
 Amplitude Modulation
Reasons for modulation. Types of modulation. Amplitude modulation
systems: Comparison of AM systems, Methods of generating, and detecting
FullAM, DSBSC and SSB signals. Vestigial sideband. Frequency mixing
and multiplying, frequency division multiplexing, applications of AM
systems.
 Frequency
Modulation
Frequency modulation systems: Instantaneous frequency, frequency
deviation, modulation index, Bessel coefficients, significant sideband
criteria, bandwidth of a sinusoidally modulated FM signal, power of an
FM signal, narrowband FM, direct and indirect FM generation, various
methods of FM demodulation, discriminator, phaselock loop, limiter.
 Pulse Modulations
Pulse amplitude modulation (PAM), Pulse width modulation (PWM), Pulse
position modulation (PPM). Sampling theorem, sampleandhold,
timedivision multiplexing, Pulse code modulation (PCM), quantization
noise, companding, Differential PCM, Delta modulation, overload noise,
Adaptive delta modulation.
 Baseband Data Transmission and Digital Modulation
Techniques
Line coding, Intersymbol interference, Nyquist waveshaping, eye
pattern,
adaptive equalization. Transmission over bandpass channel. ASK, FSK,
PSK,
DPSK, Mary modulation.
 Information Theory and Coding
Discrete message, concept and measurement of information, entropy,
information rate, redundancy, Shannon's theorem. ShannonFano and
Huffman coding algorithm, overview of linear block codes and error
correction, Hamming code.
Laboratory
1. AM Modulation/Demodulation
2. Digital Modulation Techniques using MATLAB
