Computer Graphics and Virtual Reality


Subject Code:


Aim of Subject:

To provide basic understanding of computer graphics and virtual reality.

Learning Outcome of Subject:

At the completion of the subject, students should be able to :

  • Analyze the working principle of the vector and raster displays, graphical input devices and hard-copy devices.
  • Illustrate the concept of additive and subtractive colour models.
  • Learn the algorithms for line and circle drawing, area filling.
  • Apply the 2D and 3D transformations to the graphical objects.
  • Apply 2D and 3D Clipping to graphical objects.
  • Illustrate the concept of object representation.
  • Develop methods for drawing curves and surfaces.
  • Apply hidden-line and hidden surface eliminations.
  • Analyze the concept of gamma correction in monitors.
  • Apply rendering methods using Gouroud and Phong shading.
  • Apply the concepts on animation and raytracing .
  • Illustrate the techniques of generating fractals.
  • Use OpenGL for drawing 2D and 3D objects, apply colouring and shading to the generated objects.
  • Analyze the basic concepts of Virtual Reality Systems and application VR systems like flight simulation.

Programme Outcomes:

  • Ability to acquire and apply fundamental principles of science and engineering(10%)
  • Capability to communicate effectively(10%)
  • Acquisition of technical competence in specialised areas of engineering discipline(50%)
  • Ability to conduct research in chosen fields of Engineering(10%)
  • Ability to work independently as well as with others in a team(10%)
  • Ability to be a multi-skilled engineer with good technical knowledge, management, leadership and entrepreneurship skills (10%)

Assessment Scheme:

  • Tutorial / Assignment - group assignment, focus group discussion at tutorial, to enhance understanding of basic concepts in lecture(20%)
  • Test Quiz - written exam (20%)
  • Final Exam - written exam (60%)

Teaching and Learning Activities:

53 hours (lectures,tutorials and laboratory experiment)

Credit Hours:



ECP1016: Computer and Program Design


  • Donald Hearn and M.P. Baker, “Computer Graphics with OpenGL? Third Edition Prentice Hall, 2004.
  • Francis Hill, “Computer Graphics Using OpenGL? Second Edition, Prentice Hall 2001.
  • Edward Angel, “Interactive Computer Graphics - A Top-Down Approach Using OpenGL?Third Edition, Addison Wesley 2003.
  • Roy S. Kalawsky, "The Science of Virtual Reality and Virtual Environments", Addison-Wesley, 1993.
  • John Vince, "Virtual Reality Systems", Addison-Wesley, 1995.

Subject Contents

  • Overview of Graphics Systems

Video display devices. Raster-Scan systems. Random-Scan systems. Graphics monitors and workstations. Input devices. Hard-copy devices. Graphics software. Graphical user interfaces and interactive input methods. Color models.

  • Graphic Primitives

Points, lines and curves. Drawing algorithms. Pixel addressing. Attributes of output primitives: line, curve, color, area-fill, character. Antialiasing.

  • 2D and 3D Geometric Transformations and Viewing

2D: Basic transformations. Reflection, shear. Transformation between coordinate systems. Viewing pipeline. Reference frame. Clipping operations. 3D: Display methods. Object representations: curves, surfaces, meshes and spline. Fractal geometry. Three dimensional transformations. Visualization.

  • Illumination Models, Rendering Methods and Animation

Visible-surface detection methods. Basic illumination models. Gamma correction. Halftone patterns and dithering techniques. Polygon rendering methods. Ray-tracing methods. Animation: Design of animation sequences. Animation functions. Morphing. Motion specification.

  • OpenGL

Introduction to OpenGL - Simple OpenGL commands for plotting points, drawing lines, polygons, triangle strips, quad strips etc. Drawing sphere, torus etc. with colour attributes- Shading commands


  • Virtual Reality

Introduction to virtual environment system. Definition of virtual environment system. Synthesis of virtual environment. History and development of virtual environment systems. Physiology and perception in virtual environment: visual, auditory, haptic and kinesthetic perception. Definition of virtual presence. Visual, auditory, haptic and kinesthetic environment system. Technology of virtual environment: display, position and orientation tracking, visually coupled system requirements, interaction. Physical simulation. Software for virtual environment system. Applications of virtual environments.


1.Drawing 2D objects and applying transformations
2.Drawing 3D objects and rendering