Graphics and Virtual Reality
Aim of Subject:
To provide basic understanding of computer graphics and
Learning Outcome of Subject:
At the completion of the subject, students should be
able to :
- Analyze the working
principle of the vector and raster displays, graphical input devices
and hard-copy devices.
- Illustrate the
concept of additive and subtractive colour
- Learn the algorithms
for line and circle drawing, area filling.
- Apply the 2D and 3D
transformations to the graphical objects.
- Apply 2D and 3D Clipping to graphical objects.
- Illustrate the
concept of object representation.
- Develop methods for
drawing curves and surfaces.
- Apply hidden-line
and hidden surface eliminations.
- Analyze the concept
of gamma correction in monitors.
- Apply rendering
methods using Gouroud and Phong shading.
- Apply the concepts
on animation and raytracing .
- Illustrate the
techniques of generating fractals.
- Use OpenGL for
drawing 2D and 3D objects, apply colouring
and shading to the generated objects.
- Analyze the basic
concepts of Virtual Reality Systems and application VR systems like
- Ability to acquire
and apply fundamental principles of science and engineering(10%)
- Capability to
- Acquisition of
technical competence in specialised areas of
- Ability to conduct
research in chosen fields of Engineering(10%)
- Ability to work
independently as well as with others in a team(10%)
- Ability to be a
multi-skilled engineer with good technical knowledge, management,
leadership and entrepreneurship skills (10%)
- Tutorial /
Assignment - group assignment, focus group discussion at tutorial, to
enhance understanding of basic concepts in lecture(20%)
- Test Quiz - written
- Final Exam - written
Teaching and Learning Activities:
53 hours (lectures,tutorials
and laboratory experiment)
Computer and Program Design
- Donald Hearn and
M.P. Baker, “Computer Graphics with OpenGL? Third Edition Prentice
- Francis Hill, “Computer
Graphics Using OpenGL? Second Edition, Prentice Hall 2001.
- Edward Angel, “Interactive
Computer Graphics - A Top-Down Approach Using OpenGL?Third Edition,
Addison Wesley 2003.
- Roy S. Kalawsky, "The Science of Virtual Reality and
Virtual Environments", Addison-Wesley, 1993.
- John Vince,
"Virtual Reality Systems", Addison-Wesley, 1995.
- Overview of
Video display devices. Raster-Scan systems. Random-Scan systems. Graphics monitors
and workstations. Input devices. Hard-copy devices. Graphics software.
Graphical user interfaces and interactive input methods. Color models.
Points, lines and curves. Drawing algorithms. Pixel addressing. Attributes of
output primitives: line, curve, color, area-fill, character. Antialiasing.
- 2D and 3D Geometric
Transformations and Viewing
2D: Basic transformations. Reflection, shear. Transformation between
coordinate systems. Viewing pipeline. Reference frame. Clipping operations.
3D: Display methods. Object representations: curves, surfaces, meshes and spline. Fractal geometry. Three dimensional
Models, Rendering Methods and Animation
Visible-surface detection methods. Basic illumination models. Gamma
correction. Halftone patterns and dithering techniques. Polygon rendering
methods. Ray-tracing methods. Animation: Design of animation sequences.
Animation functions. Morphing. Motion specification.
Introduction to OpenGL - Simple
OpenGL commands for plotting points, drawing lines, polygons, triangle
strips, quad strips etc. Drawing sphere, torus etc. with colour
attributes- Shading commands
Introduction to virtual environment system. Definition of virtual environment
system. Synthesis of virtual environment. History and development of virtual environment
systems. Physiology and perception in virtual environment: visual, auditory, haptic and kinesthetic perception. Definition of virtual
presence. Visual, auditory, haptic and kinesthetic
environment system. Technology of virtual environment: display, position and
orientation tracking, visually coupled system requirements, interaction.
Physical simulation. Software for virtual environment system. Applications of
1.Drawing 2D objects and applying transformations
2.Drawing 3D objects and rendering