Experiments that Indicate Inadequacy of Classical Mechanics. Concept of Duality. The Uncertainty Principle. Representation of a Particle by a Wave: de-Broglie Wavelength, Wave Packet, Group and Phase Velocities, Schrodinger‘s Equation, Electron in Free Space, Infinite Potential Well, Step Potential, Potential Barrier and Tunneling Effects. Hydrogen Atom, Pauli’s Exclusion Principle and Periodic Table. Maxwell-Boltzman Distribution and Fermi-Dirac Distribution, Application of Both Statistics.
Conduction Electrons, Free-Electron Gas, Electrical Conductivity, Resistively, Thermal Velocity, Drift Velocity, Collisions and Scattering, Mobility.
Conductors, Semiconductors and Insulators, Semiconductor Materials, Types of Solids, Atomic Bonding, Crystal Lattices: Periodic Structures, Cubic Lattice, Planes and Directions and Diamond Lattice. Kronig-Penney Model: Periodic Potential, Band Structure and E-k Diagram, Concept of the Hole, Effective Mass, Direct and Indirect Semiconductor.
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Semiconductors, Charge carriers in Semiconductors, Density of States, Fermi-Dirac Distribution Function, Intrinsic Carrier Densities, Location of Fermi Level, Compensated Semiconductors, Mass-Action Law, Charge Neutrality. Carrier Transport Phenomena: Thermal Velocity, Drift Velocity, Effects of Impurity Concentration and Temperature Mobility, Conductivity, Drift and Diffusion Currents, Einstein Relation, Hall Effect. Excess Carriers: Direct & Indirect Generation and Recombination, Low-Level Injection, Continuity Equation, Excess-Carrier Lifetime, Haynes-Shockley Experiment.
Basic Structure. Equilibrium Conditions. Contact potential, Fermi Level, Space Charge in the Depletion Region. Biased Junction: Electric Field, Potential Distribution, Depletion Width, Junction Capacitance, Band Structure, Minority and Majority Carrier Distributions, Diffusion current and Ideal Diode Equation. Junction Breakdown: Zener and Avalanche Breakdowns, Punch Through. PN Diodes: Zener Diode, Tunnel Diode, Solar Cell, Photodiode and Light Emitting Diode.
Introduction, Liquid Crystal Phases: Nematic, Smectic and Cholesteric, Structure and Properties of LCDs, Display Mechanisms.
Laboratory1. Measurements of Conductivity and Hall Effect in a Semiconductor.
2. I-V Characteristics of a Solar Cell.